National Hog Farmer May/June 2022
We hope you are enjoying the new National Hog Farmer. With every edition, we aim to bring the latest in hog markets, production and research.
We hope you are enjoying the new National Hog Farmer. With every edition, we aim to bring the latest in hog markets, consumer insight, nutrition, health and production to life — dynamically. You will find engaging video, podcasts, slideshows, animation and more. You also will have the opportunity to engage, share and download content. Feel free to share your thoughts below or to reach out directly to us. We'd love to hear what you think and ideas that you might like to share.
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Latest from Farm to Fork
Animal protein production slows,
inflation to pressure consumer budgets
By Brian Earnest
To begin 2022, the animal protein production sector began faced numerous headwinds.
Drought concerns for Western cattle feeders, tighter feed supply expectations on reduced South American output, a labor supply crunch, and higher energy prices all suggested moderately lower output despite optimism over rising meat prices.
Feeding challenges have most recently been exacerbated by the risk to global grain stocks due to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. However, prices for livestock, meat, and poultry have continued higher, promoting cautious optimism for producers.
With the exception of beef, protein output has failed to advance in the early stages of 2022. Labor and lack of market ready hogs continue to play a role in reduced pork output which is down 7% year-over-year.
Weather issues complicated cattle processing early in January, but the weekly slaughter has picked up pace since then and is now up 1% YoY. Likewise, broiler harvest has been advancing moderately, up 1% YoY, but still remains 3% below 2020 levels.
Demand from the food service sector finally looks to be finding consistency after recovering from the omicron wave.
And as grilling season begins, robust demand is expected to continue to pressure supply despite average retail meat and poultry prices rising 10% in the 12 month period ended February.
U.S. protein export values jumped by 22% during 2021 and while China’s imports of U.S . pork have slowed down we expect exports to be strong again this year, as Mexico continues to buy record levels of pork and China keeps buying more U.S. beef.
From a financial standpoint, 2021 was a phenomenal year for pork. At one point, live hog values represented a staggering 35% of retail pork value (the portion that the producer received from prices paid by consumer) a level not seen since the highs in 2014.
While there is still quite a bit of unknown regarding consumer response to higher meat prices, this year appears to be shaping up for similar results as retailers scramble for affordable protein options and exports continue to pressure supplies.
Returns for a farrow-to-finish hog operation estimated by Iowa State University posted a $21.36 per head profit for the month of February, up $15.73 per head YoY and a $24.24 per head gain over the prior month.
Complications in the path forward are the inflationary pressures from an input standpoint. Additionally, rising interest rates have the potential to put more producers on the sidelines.
However, we expect the impact will largely be minimized by other factors, including limited access to labor,
USDA’s March 1 Quarterly Hogs and Pigs Report was moderately bullish but continued in line with the last report in terms of implications for the market.
The U.S. hog inventory total was down 2.3% YoY, which was larger than analyst expectations and the lowest total since 2018 for the same period.
With the breeding portion of inventory total down nearly 2% YoY, and at a five-year low of 6.1 million head pork supplies are sure to be hampered for 2022.
Earnest is a leading protein industry analyst with CoBank.
Meat industry not threatened by plant-based meat alternatives
New research, published in the journal of Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, show that while sales and market share of new-generation plant-based meat alternatives have grown in recent years, those gains haven't translated into reduced consumer spending on animal meat products.
For this study, the researchers obtained weekly Nielsen scanner data from the first week of January 2017 to the second week of July 2020 on fresh meat expenditures at grocery, drug, big-box, dollar and military stores across 40 U.S states. Study categories included plant-based meat alternatives, beef, chicken, turkey, pork, other meats (such as lamb and duck) and fresh fish.
Results showed that plant-based meat alternatives constituted only 0.1% of average total expenditures on fresh meat during the study period – but during that same time frame the market share increased four-fold, to 0.4%. Beef topped fresh meat sales at 46%, followed by chicken at 23%, pork and fish at about 12% each, and turkey and other meats accounting for less than 5% of fresh meat sales.
Beef and meat alternatives were the highest-priced options, with beef costing an average of $5.44 per unit and PBMAs averaging $4.84 per unit. Of all the choices studied, expenditures of the plant-based goods tended to increase the most when those products were on sale. Reduced prices on beef and chicken lowered demand for plant-based meats, but lower prices on imitation meat didn't have much of an effect on demand for animal protein sources.
2022 New Product Tour
Nine companies compete in annual 'Shark Tank' competition
National Hog Farmer's New Product Tour once again went virtual as part of the Global Hog Industry Virtual Conference and World Pork Expo. The New Products Tour allows companies to showcase their latest products to help producers save money and improve efficiency.
During the Global Hog Industry Virtual Conference, a panel of pork industry experts reviewed products, keeping in mind how each would benefit producers and the industry. Respective company representatives presented a two-minute video or sales pitch to the panel of judges, after which the judges asked questions about the product in the style of TV's "Shark Tank."
VOTE for your favorite New Product for 2022 online, or in person at the National Hog Farmer / Feedstuffs booth at World Pork Expo - V625.
The 2022 New Product Tour entries are:
Pit Stick Monitoring System
Pit Stick Monitoring System helps swine producers visualize the amount of manure in the pit and how much storage is space is left. Real-time data helps producers know exactly where their manure pits levels are and helps to more efficiently plan pumping schedules.
Pit Stick also provides insights on how much pit storage is being used week-to-week and month-to-month, and can help detect excessive soaking and large water leaks without the producer being on site. Click here for more information.
PhytoCare Skin Recovery and Care
PhytoCare Skin Recovery and Care is an all-natural, spray-on solution that promotes healing and skin repair. This innovative product incorporates advanced phenolic formulations, activated to aid in prevention as well as improving an animal’s ability to stimulate rapid healing of skin bruising, contusions and open wounds.
Shoulder sores, tail bites, tail docking, castration all realize accelerated skin healing from the APM, (Activated Phenolic Molecules) extracted from Green Tea, Pomegranate, and Berry Extract with Grapes. Daily applications of Skin Care and Recovery will allow infected skin lesions to resolve quicker and restore epidermal quality.
Product uses PHT polyphenol activated solutions to provide a spray that is sprayed on open wounds, and after spraying, only needs to be allowed to dry. No additional bandages or wraps are needed. By extending the rapid healing properties of plants, PHT is helping the industry to find effective therapies for those pursuing “antibiotic free” (ABF) or “no antibiotic ever” (NAE) production strategies. Click here for more information.
Hog Hearth Nursery Mat
Innovative Heating Technologies has designed the first energy efficient dual purpose heating/feed mat for use with nursery piglets. The Hog Hearth Nursery Mat provides essential heat to newly weaned piglets. Constructed with an ultra-durable, fire-rated, antimicrobial plastic enclosure the heat pad creates a warm, comfortable micro-climate for the pigs to lay down and properly acclimate to it’s new surroundings.
The non-slip, easy-clean surface of the heat mat enclosure incorporates outer rails to help keep dry feed on the surface of the heater. Click here for more information.
TiaGard 12.5% Liquid Concentrate
A recently approved tiamulin product for oral administration via Aurora Pharmaceuticals, TiaGuard 12.%% Liquid Concentrate quickly stops dysentery and pneumonia in pigs of all ages. TiaGard contains 12.5% tiamulin hydrogen fumarate and is a cost-effective treatment for swine dysentery associated with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and swine pneumonia due to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.
TiaGard is administered at 3.5 mg per pound of body weight in the drinking water for five consecutive days for dysentery or 10.5 mg per pound of body weight in the drinking water for five consecutive days for pneumonia. Click here for more information.
Animal Science Products is excited to introduce Oinkment spray-on flexi-film bandage, a first-of-its-kind product in swine wound care. Once applied, the sprayable, liquid film dries to form a crucial, flexible barrier to shield wounds on swine.
In addition, it kills antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus to support effective wound care and infection control.
When applied to wounds on swine, Oinkment increases epithelialization and provides a soothing analgesic activity. This increases wound healing time, compared to current standards. From an animal welfare perspective, it provides pork producers with a product that can improve shoulder sores, open wounds and
abrasions, tail bites and post castration incisions on their swine, all in an easy-to-apply, spray-on formula. Click here for more information.
This self-contained, 29' boom agitation trailer from Bazooka Farmstar brings new advances to the liquid manure agitation process.
Renegade successfully empties manure pits to provide ample storage space in confinement buildings to avoid breaching, and the new loadstand integration provides custom application crews an additional layer of biosecurity by reducing the amount of equipment needed to complete the job, keeping pork producers' farms safe.
For more benefits on the Renegade, visit their booth #SV300 at World Pork Expo or click here for more information.
MealMeter2.0, from PigEasy LLC, exploits the benefits of the top-performing MealMeter feeder by adding sensors to accurately track feed and water consumption of individual sows in farrowing.
Staff is alerted to problem sows with low intakes so they can intervene faster and make more informed decisions.
Long-term data capture will reveal vital information surrounding sow production performance. What can we uncover when we track feeding and watering data down to each individual sow? Find out with MealMeter2.0. Click here for more information.
By-O-reg+ PS Concentrate
As new rules and regulations come about, Advanced Ag Products LLC has taken their granular high quality ingredient feed product, By-O-reg+ and adapted it to a form that is user friendly, water-soluble and able to go through a medicator for the pork industry.
By-O-reg+ PS Concentrate is a user friendly, gut health supplement that will help pigs from the beginning even when intake is limited.
By-O-reg+ PS Concentrate works to combat health challenges, promotes animal performances and minimizes stress during different phases of the production cycle.
By-O-reg+ PS Concentrate uses high quality ingredients as well as their CF20 coating technology which is not only all natural but protects essential oils allowing for a targeted release in the small intestines.
This product aids in maximizing pig flow, minimizing feed cost and reducing nonproductive days, all while assisting in the creation of a healthier, heavier, more efficient animal. Click here for more information.
Rota Virus Prescription Platform Vaccine
In 2018 the USDA Center for Veterinary Biologics (CVB) issued guidance documents allowing for the development and licensure of Prescription Production Platform Vaccines (RxPP). Medgene is leading the way as one of the few developers and manufacturers of this new vaccine category.
RxPP vaccines can use Genes of Interest from these new strains to develop current vaccines without the long wait times. Unlike autogenous vaccines, RxPP vaccines may be used in any swine herd that the attending veterinarian determines could benefit from their use.
Another distinct advantage to RxPP vaccines is for the use for emerging diseases where there is no other way possible to create a vaccine. In many cases, production of a RxPP vaccine can be done in less than twelve weeks from start to finish. Click here for more information.
Check out the 2022 New Product Tour gallery online and vote, or vote in person at the National Hog Farmer / Feedstuffs booth at World Pork Expo - V625.
View 2022 New Product Tour presentations here.
Injecting iron a second time before weaning
Effects on pre- and post-weaning growth performance, hematocrit level
By Sarah Albers, Clara Lemanski and Young Dal Jang
Newborn piglets are susceptible to iron-deficiency anemia since they are born with low iron reserves and sow milk contains a low level of iron. A single iron injection given to newborn piglets is a common practice in the swine industry to improve iron and hematological status.
However, as piglets grow fast during the suckling period and weaning weight increases with increasing weaning age up to 28 days, a single iron injection at birth may not be sufficient to meet iron requirements during the entire suckling period when piglets are weaned at the age of over 21 days, which may result in post-weaning growth retardation.
A second iron injection before weaning could be a useful way to boost the iron status of piglets and thereby improve their hematological status. However, it has not been demonstrated yet whether the second iron injection enhanced the growth of piglets and how the effectiveness of additional iron injection could be accurately measured.
Therefore, the two research trials evaluated the effects of additional iron injection before weaning on pre- and post-weaning growth performance and hematocrit level of piglets weaned around 25 to 27 days of age.
Effects of second iron injection to suckling piglets
Two experiments were carried out to assess the effects of second iron injection to suckling piglets on pre- and post-weaning growth performance and hematocrit level.
In Experiment 1, a total of 20 piglets were allotted into two treatments within the litter based on body weight and gender at day 1 to 2 of age. Treatments were:
- Iron100b: 100 mg iron-dextran intramuscular injection at day 1 to 2 of age.
- Iron200b: 200 mg iron-dextran intramuscular injection at day 1 to 2 of age.
An additional 200 mg of iron-dextran was injected to all piglets intramuscularly at day 14 after the first injection (11 days before weaning). Body weight and hematocrit levels were measured at day 0, 14 and 25 after the first injection. Preweaning growth performance did not differ among treatments.
In day 14 and 25 after the first injection, the Iron200b treatment had greater hematocrit levels than the Iron100b treatment (P<0.06; Table 1). Hematocrit level changes were greater in the Iron200b treatment in day 0 to 14 (P=0.06) after the first injection but lower in day 14 to 25 (P<0.05) after the first injection than Iron100b treatment.
d 0 post-injection
|d 14 post-injection
d 25 post-injection
d 0-14 post-injection
d 14-25 post-injection
d 0-25 post-injection
Table 1. Hematocrit concentrations in Experiment 1.
* Treatments were: 1) Iron100b: 100 mg iron-dextran intramuscular injection at day 1 to 2 of age, and 2) Iron200b: 200 mg iron-dextran intramuscular injection at day 1 to 2 of age. An additional 200 mg of iron-dextran was injected to all piglets intramuscularly at day 14 after the first injection (11 days before weaning).
The result of the first experiment indicated that second iron injection did not affect the preweaning growth of piglets, but when the low level of iron (100 mg) was administered to piglets at birth, the efficacy of the second iron injection in increasing hematocrit level was more pronounced than when the high level of iron (200 mg) was administered.
In Experiment 2, a total of 22 piglets from four litters were allotted into three treatments at birth (day 1-3 of age) within the litter based on body weight and gender as follows:
- Control: no second injection.
- Iron14: 100 mg iron-dextran intramuscular injection 14 days before weaning (day 10 of experiment).
- Iron7: 100 mg iron-dextran intramuscular injection 7 d before weaning (day 17 of experiment).
The initial 150 mg of iron-dextran was injected intramuscularly on day 1-3 of age. Body weight and hematocrit levels were measured at day 0, 10 (second injection for Iron14 treatment), 17 (second injection for Iron7 treatment), 24 (weaning), 31 and 38 after the first iron injection.
The Iron14 treatment tended to have a greater final weight at 2 weeks post-weaning than the control treatment (P=0.07), and the Iron7 treatment had an intermediate value in the final weight. In hematocrit level, the Iron14 treatment had greater levels than the control treatment at day 17, 24, 31 (P<0.05), and 38 (P=0.10) of experiment whereas the Iron7 treatment had greater levels than the control treatment at day 24, 31 and 38 of experiment (P<0.05) and lower than Iron14 treatment at day 17 (P<0.05) of experiment.
The results of the second experiment indicated that although the second iron injection before weaning could increase hematocrit levels of piglets in pre- and post-weaning periods, the injection 14 days before weaning may be effective for improving early post-weaning growth.
In conclusion, the additional iron injection to suckling piglets could potentially improve early post-weaning growth performance and hematocrit levels.
However, the change in hematocrit levels was greater when piglets had low hematocrit levels. In order to observe the effect of the second iron injection in the post-weaning period, the second iron injection may need to happen early enough before weaning.
Albers is a former undergraduate, Lemanski is an undergraduate and Jang is an assistant professor, all at the University of Wisconsin – River Falls.
1 vs 2
2 vs 3
2 vs 3
Body weight, kg
|Initial (d 0)
|d 24 (weaning)
|Initial (d 0)
|d 1 7
|d 24 (weaning)
Table 2. Growth performance and hematocrit level in Experiment 2
*Treatments were 1) Control: no second injection, 2) Iron14: 100 mg iron-dextran intramuscular injection 14 days before weaning (day 10 of experiment), and 3) Iron7: 100 mg iron-dextran intramuscular injection 7 d before weaning (day 17 of experiment).
Impact of caretaker movements
Examining the spread of porcine coronaviruses, PRRS virus in growing pigs
By Alexis Berte, Kate Dion, Derald Holtamp, Daniel Linhares, Gustavo De-Sousa-E-Silva and Mafalda Pedro Mil-Homens
Biosecurity plays an important role in preventing the spread of pathogens between swine premises. Each risk event can potentially spread pathogens and cause economic loss.
Caretaker movements from one swine premises to another is an event that may spread porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine coronaviruses.
The role of caretaker movements in spreading pathogens from one premises to another is not well established in wean-to-market premises.
The objective of this study was to investigate if the movement of caretakers from one premises to another impacted the spread of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine delta coronavirus (PDCoV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), and PRRSV.
Eight oral fluids (OF) were collected every two weeks from equidistant locations (i.e., fixed spatial sampling) from 63 nursery groups from May 2020-June 2021.
To be eligible, the groups originated from sow farms that were Category II-vx or IV for PRRSV and negative for PEDV, PDCoV and TGEV.
The OF samples were pooled into groups of four and tested for PEDV, PDCoV, TGEV and PRRSV using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the group's status for each pathogen.
Timesheet Mobile (Freedom Telecare, Westborough, MA) was used to identify all caretaker entries into the study premises and movements between other premises three days prior.
This system allows caretakers to be tracked via their GPS location on their phones. It records when they enter and exit a specific swine premises. All of this information can then be downloaded and sorted using spreadsheets.
Figure 1. This image shows how oral fluids are collected using ropes that pigs chew on to saturate them. The oral fluids are then collected into tubes and sent into the diagnostic lab for testing.
The pathogen status of the other premises visited prior to entering the study premises was collected utilizing production system diagnostic data.
The number of caretaker entries to the study premises for each two-week period, and the visits to other premises visited in the three days before entering the study premises were evaluated as a ratio of the number of visits from positive premises over the total number of visits.
For the analysis, a logistic regression model per pathogen was performed to determine the association between the number of caretaker entries and the ratio of the number of visits from positive premises over the total number of visits and pathogen status in R package (version 4.1.1).
Results, take home message
Out of the 63 groups, six tested positive for PRRSV, eight tested positive for PEDV, and 12 tested positive for PDCoV. Four groups for PEDV and three groups for PDCoV were removed from the analysis after their initial test was positive. No groups tested positive for TGEV.
The number of standard employee visits for the entire nursery period ranged from 39.1 to 141.9 for each two week period, with an average of 73.1 visits. Caretaker visits and the ratio of previous site visits were not statistically significant (p<0.05) in the logistic regression for any of the pathogens.
This result suggests that more frequent caretaker visits and visiting a higher ratio of positive sites is not associated with the introduction of virus into groups of pigs that were previously negative.
While this result was surprising, it does not imply that caretaker entry is not an important route by which virus may be transmitted from one premises to another. It does raise some interesting questions that warrant further investigation.
Periods other than three days for prior site visits may be evaluated, for example, to determine if the virus status of other premises visited in one or wo days, instead of three, are more closely associated with virus introduction.
Berte is a DVM candidate, Dion and and Mil-Homens are graduate students, Holtamp is a professor, Linhares is an associate professor, and De-Sousa-E-Silva is an assistant professor, all with Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine.
Sow cooling pads can improve litter growth
Results independent of increased sow feed intake during heat stress
By Jay S. Johnson, Allan P. Schinckel and Robert M. Stwalley
Elevated summer temperatures can reduce milk production in lactating sows in an attempt to decrease metabolic heat production. Unfortunately, this can result in poor litter growth performance. Reduced milk production and litter growth is often attributed to the reductive effects of heat stress on lactating sow feed intake. As such, management practices to improve sow milk production and litter performance during heat stress events are often focused on maximizing sow feed intake. This is achieved through nutritional additives, dietary manipulations and altering feeding schedules. However, recent research by our group suggests that reduced sow feed intake does not fully explain lost milk production and litter growth performance during heat stress events.
Sow cooling pads developed by our group are proven to be effective in allowing lactating sows to maintain a normal body temperature when managed under heat stress conditions (Fig. 1, 2). However, the effects on sow milk production and litter growth performance were previously unknown.
A total of 12 multiparous lactating Yorkshire x Landrace sows and their litters were provided either a sow cooling pad (six total) or a non-functional sow cooling pad (six total) and then managed under heat stress conditions (cycling 83 to 92°F) until weaning. Sows and litters were maintained within farrowing crates placed within custom designed indirect calorimeters (Fig. 3). This allowed for individual measurement of metabolic heat production on day 4, 8, 14 and 18 of lactation, which can be considered an indirect measure of milk production.
From farrowing to weaning, sow body temperature was measured hourly, respiration rate was monitored four times daily and feed intake was measured daily. Litter weights were recorded at birth, days 4, 8, 14 and 18 post-farrowing, and at weaning.
Study results demonstrated that the cooling pads were effective in reducing sow respiration rate and maximum body temperature throughout the course of lactation (Fig. 4). However, no improvements in sow feed intake were detected when comparing sows with and without functional cooling pads (Fig. 4).
Despite the lack of feed intake improvements, metabolic heat production was increased overall for sows provided a cooling pad (Fig. 4). This result may indicate that cooling alone can allow sows to maintain higher milk production under heat stress conditions independent of greater feed intake.
As a likely result of improved milk production, litter average daily body weight gain and weaning weights were greater for litters of sows provided cooling pads (Fig. 5). This is further confirmation that the cooling pads improved sow milk production independent of increased feed intake under heat stress conditions.
Taken together, this study provides evidence that sow cooling pads can be an effective strategy to improve lactating sow welfare and performance under heat stress conditions and increase litter growth rate independent of increased sow feed intake. Research to more fully understand the mechanisms by which heat stress directly affects sow milk production is currently being undertaken.
This work was supported in part by the Pork Checkoff (Grant 200225168), National Pork Board, Des Moines. We would also like to acknowledge other co-authors of this research including Taylor Jansen, Michaiah Galvin, Jason Graham and Tyler Field.
Johnson is a USDA research animal scientist, Schnickel is a professor of animal science and Stwalley is an assistant clinical professor of agricultural and biological engineering, all based at Purdue University.
Novel whole-cell yeast increases pigs to market
Supplementing sows with P. guilliermondii improves reproductive performance
By Morgan T. Thayer and Daniel B. Jones
In the swine industry, profit potential is driven by productivity and efficiency. Nutrition, health, genetics and management practices are a few areas that can have major impacts on reproductive performance, growth performance and feed efficiency.
Specifically regarding nutrition, cost effective and low inclusion specialty feed additives that provide consistent and valuable production benefits are greatly sought after by swine producers today. For instance, Pichia guillermondii is a novel whole-cell yeast with unique structure, morphology, and production benefits1.
Feeding Pichia guilliermondii to sows
At a 3,200 sow commercial facility in Minnesota, 535 sows and gilts were fed 0 or 2 pounds/ton of P. guilliermondii in gestation and lactation2. Females were allotted to dietary treatments at breeding. After the completion of the first reproductive cycle, a total of 358 sows remained on the same dietary treatment for second consecutive gestation and lactation. New gilts were not enrolled into cycle two.
Sows fed P. guilliermondii had 0.59 more pigs total born (P < 0.04) and 0.53 more born alive (P < 0.06) in cycle one. In cycle two, a similar magnitude of improvement was observed in total born (+0.44; P < 0.18) and born alive pigs per litter (+0.43; P < 0.18; Figure 1).
Progeny followed to market from P. guilliermondii fed sows
Pigs from cycle two sows were used to determine if feeding gestating and lactating sows and/or their progeny a proprietary strain of P. guilliermondii as a whole-cell inactivated yeast product improved progeny nursery and grow-finish growth performance and carcass characteristics3.
A total of 1,260 weaned pigs were housed with 21 pigs/pen and 15 pens/treatment. The experiment was organized with a 2 x 2 factorial treatment structure with sows fed 0 or 2 lbs/ton in gestation and lactation and pigs fed 0 or 3 lbs/ton in the nursery followed by 0 or 1 lb/ton in grow-finish. A three-phase nursery program and five-phase grow-finish program was fed using corn, soybean meal, DDGs based diets. Pigs were marketed with equal days on feed and carcass data was collected.
During the 42-day nursery period, there was no main effect of sow diet, pig diet or their interaction on average daily gain or feed intake. There was a trend for main effect of sow diet on nursery livability where pigs from P. guilliermondii fed sows had a 2.0 percentage point improvement in livability (92.12% vs 94.11%; P < 0.130).
Pigs were marketed on day 117 (first cut) and day 132 (barn empty) of the grow-finish period. For the overall grow-finish period, pigs from P. guilliermondii fed sows had greater average daily gain (P < 0.001) and average daily feed intake (P < 0.016) compared to pigs from sows not fed P. guilliermondii (Figure 2). Final body weight was also 4.57 lbs greater when pigs were from P. guilliermondii fed sows (P < 0.016).
In alignment with the nursery period, there was an additional main effect of sow diet resulting in a 1.8 percentage point improvement in livability during the grower/finisher period (95.09% vs 96.92%; P < 0.146) when pigs were from sows fed P. guilliermondii during gestation and lactation.
Hot carcass weight of pigs from P. guilliermondii fed sows was 4.34 lbs greater than pigs from control fed sows (P < 0.003; Table 1). Pigs from P. guilliermondii fed sows also had 0.32% greater carcass yield (P < 0.023). Additionally, when the nursery and grow-finish pigs were fed P. guilliermondii, they had 0.28% greater carcass yield compared to pigs fed control (P < 0.048).
Using market conditions and feed costs during the time of the grow-finish experiment, researchers found that pigs from P. guilliermondii fed sows earned $2.17 more carcass revenue (P < 0.017) and tended to have a greater carcass revenue over feed cost (P < 0.067).
These economical improvements were in addition to the 3.8% total improvement in wean-to-finish livability observed in this study.
Implications of feeding P. guilliermondii
The improved reproductive performance, including increased total born and born alive pigs, when supplementing sows and gilts with P. guilliermondii in gestation and lactation has been repeated in multiple experiments and evaluated in a meta-analysis4,5,6.
P. guilliermondii is a demonstrated cost effective and low inclusion specialty feed additive that provides consistent and valuable production benefits. Its inclusion in gilt and sow gestation and lactation diets not only increases the number of pigs born but those pigs may also grow faster to market and a larger percentage may survive to market. These improvements certainly have potential to improve profitability through increased production and efficiency.
1. Peisker, M., Stensrud, E., Apajalahti, J., & Sifri, M. (2017). Morphological Characterization of Pichia guilliermondii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast and their Effects on Adherence of Intestinal Pathogens on Piglet and Chicken Epithelium In-vitro. Journal of Animal Research and Nutrition, 02(01:9). https://doi.org/10.21767/2572-5459.100029
2. Thayer, M. T., Asmus, M. D., Gourley, G., Bruder, E., & Jones, D. B. (2020). 278 Feeding a whole-cell inactivated Pichia guilliermondi yeast to gestating and lactating sows over two consecutive parities. Journal of Animal Science, 98(Supplement_3), 97–97. https://doi.org/10.1093/jas/skaa054.168
3. Thayer, M. T., Asmus, M. D., Jones, D. B., Gourley, G., & Bruder, E. (2022). Effects of feeding a whole-cell inactivated Pichia guilliermondii yeast in sow and/or pig diets on progeny nursery and grow-finish growth performance and carcass characteristics. American Society of Animal Science Midwest Annual Meeting. Omaha, Nebraska, USA.
4. Bass, B. E., Tsai, T.-C., Yang, H., Perez, V., Holzgraefe, D., Chewning, J., Frank, J. W., & Maxwell, C. V. (2019). Influence of a whole yeast product (Pichia guilliermondii) fed throughout gestation and lactation on performance and immune parameters of the sow and litter. Journal of Animal Science, 97(4), 1671–1678. https://doi.org/10.1093/jas/skz060
5. Thayer, M. T., Garcia, R. M., Duttlinger, A. W., Mahoney, J. F., Schinckel, A. P., Asmus, M. D., Jones, D. B., Dunn, J. L., & Richert, B. T. (2020). 275 Feeding a whole-cell inactivated Pichia guilliermondi yeast to gestating and lactating sows in a commercial production system. Journal of Animal Science, 98(Supplement_3), 99–100. https://doi.org/10.1093/jas/skaa054.172
6. Oguey C., Thayer M., Jones D., & Samson, A. (2022). Meta-analysis of the effects of inactivated Pichia guilliermondii yeast fed to sows on progeny performance before and after weaning. 15th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology of Pigs. Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Thayer is a swine technical services manager, and Jones is a senior swine technical manager, both at ADM.